Stakeholders' collaboration is receiving growing recognition in tourism planning and management. However, inadequate research has been undertaken into this topic within developing or underdeveloped countries. This study has evaluated the potential for stakeholders' collaboration as a key factor in the prospects for Community Based Ecotourism (CBE) in coastal areas of Pakistan. Core concepts of strategic analysis and collaboration theory were applied to case studies and field research. Sustainable practices were identified from three selected CBE case studies (Ulugan Bay, Philippines; Operation Wallacea, Indonesia and Kaikoura District Council, New Zealand), all of which champion stakeholder collaboration in their operations. Field level research was carried out in Pakistan to identify gaps in sectoral management approaches to tourism. Attributes observed within all the three case studies were then critically compared with the situation in Pakistan. In order to explore CBE potential as a viable option for coastal tourism in Pakistan, an assessment of ecologically sensitive coastal areas for their potential in CBE together with an assessment of the stakeholder environment for collaboration in CBE was undertaken. Application of the first exercise to seven ecologically sensitive coastal areas (Jiwani, Miani Hor, Pasni-Astola Island, Harjana Village Bamboor, Kaka Pir Village, Mubarak Village and Keti Bandar) identified two major issues of concern. Namely how to avoid external threats for establishing CBE at each destination and how to access regional opportunities for developing CBE. With respect to second exercise, the stakeholder environment of Sindh Province was assessed for essential preconditions to enable stakeholders' collaboration in CBE. Notwithstanding some major positive attributes of collaboration, the existing power based approach was considered to be a major obstacle. In order to conceptualise collaboration theory application to CBE in Pakistan, results of the empirical research into the stakeholders' environment of Sindh were evaluated using a three-stage model of collaboration. The model was advanced through six propositions and the need for the model to recognise practical issues, biodiversity resources and scenic assessment values was identified. In order to successfully establish stakeholders' collaboration in CBE in coastal areas of Pakistan the collaboration model recommended optimum conditions such as the inclusion of broad range of stakeholders; identification of a suitable convenor; application of a "search conference"; strategic repositioning of stakeholders and finally, establishing a collaborative organisation structure. This research concluded that selected rural coastal locations in Pakistan offer an alternative to unsustainable urban tourism on the beaches close to Karachi. Furthermore, the contextual environment of Sindh Province has a potential for stakeholders' collaboration in CBE, but this is currently thwarted by stakeholders' power based approach and the political instability of the country. Further work is needed to establish whether such a model could be applied elsewhere in the developing world.
|Date of Award||Sept 2010|
- Nottingham Trent University