The ankle and foot region: anatomy, assessment and injuries

Keith Ward, Troy Douglin, Hannah Boardman, Adam Hawkey

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Published conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


    The ankle and foot play a major role in stable bipedal posture, locomotion and balance of the human body. These structures have a direct functional relationship with the hip and knee (Ferber et al., 2009). While the supporting structures within the ankle and foot display some similarity to those of the wrist and hand, the diff erences between these two anatomical units refl ects the diff erences in their functional demands (Oatis, 2009). The anatomy of the ankle and foot is largely dictated by the need to bear the total body mass during activities such as standing, walking, stair-climbing and running. The ankle and foot are composed (in average populations) of a complex structure of 28 bones, 55 articulations (including 30 synovial joints), more than 100 ligaments, and over 30 muscles (Dutton, 2008). All of these structures ideally interact harmoniously, with the overriding aim being the achievement of smooth and stable motion of the lower limb.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationRoutledge Handbook of Sports Therapy, Injury Assessment and Rehabilitation
    EditorsKeith Ward
    Place of PublicationOxon
    Number of pages56
    ISBN (Electronic)978-0-203-80719-4
    ISBN (Print)978-0-415-59326-7, 978-1-138-55906-6
    Publication statusPublished - 18 Sept 2015

    Publication series

    NameRoutledge International Handbooks


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