Since its foundation in the late-19th century, sport has traditionally been charged with socializing boys and men into an environment in which they are expected to exhibit physical toughness, emotional stoicism, and the rejection of anything deemed to be feminine—including homosexuality. In the 21st century, however, attitudes toward homosexuality and its presence in sport have improved. This chapter draws upon research from a range of sports to outline this shift in attitude. It also discusses dominant theoretical perspectives—hegemonic masculinity theory and inclusive masculinity theory—and how these have evolved over recent years—as well as some of the ongoing debates which pervade the field, including where further research is required.
|Title of host publication||Oxford Handbook of Sport and Society|
|Place of Publication||New York|
|Publisher||Oxford University Press|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2022|