Outlines a synthesis of personality trait and social cognitive perspectives that emphasizes stable cognitive knowledge structures as both a basis for personality traits and as an important influence on context-bound self-regulative cognitions. Self-regulation is conceptualized as the set of processes and behaviors that support the pursuit of personal goals within a changing external environment. The authors begin with definitions of constructs and a description of a cognitive architecture for self-regulation that specifies how self-knowledge influences appraisal and coping processes. They show that the architecture is compatible with both social-cognitive and trait perspectives. Next, a general overview of empirical findings is provided, linking traits to individual differences in self-regulative processing and self-knowledge. Then, the cognitive-social framework is applied to 3 research areas, identifying the personality traits that relate to adaptive outcome and self-regulation. These areas are (1) reactions to life stressors, (2) performance of demanding tasks, and (3) aggressive behavior. The conclusion summarizes the traits most closely related to self-regulation, and the cognitive structures and processes related to those traits.