The Maritime Labour Convention 2006 is one of the most important conventions adopted by the International Labour Organization. The Convention has entered into force in August 2013 and currently been ratified by 55 States. The most important content of the Convention is that it prescribes responsibilities for the major three parties in the maritime industry: flag states, port states, and seafarers supplying states. China has emerged as the world׳s largest shipbuilder, the largest seafarers supplying country, one of the world׳s largest ship-owners, and one of the largest port states. Therefore, the Convention has perhaps more significant impact on China than any other country. Until now, China has not yet ratified the Convention. In recent years, China has made substantial efforts to keep in tune with the international labour standards, in particular on the seafarers׳ affairs. In the broader overall context of Chinese maritime policy, this paper provides a critical review and evaluation of the maritime labour policy adopted by the Chinese government, especially since 2007. The response of the Chinese Government to the Maritime Labour Convention 2006 is examined.