Seafarers make a critical contribution to civil society, but seafarers’ health has received comparatively little attention in the maritime world. China has the largest population of seafarers, and Chinese seafarers are working on board merchant ships flying different flags. The Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 entered into force in China in November 2016, and it has already generated significant impact in terms of policy, legislation and maritime practice. However, while seafarers’ treatment has been improved significantly in many countries, in particular in developed countries, Chinese seafarers are still facing some challenges relating to health issues, such as long working hours, insufficient nutrition, lack of recreation and poor mental health. Based on existing knowledge and scholarship available in the public domain, together with primary data collected in several phases of fieldwork, this paper critically examines a number of major issues relating to maritime health of Chinese seafarers.