Closed Quotient and Spectral Measures of Female Adolescent Singers in Different Singing Styles

Christopher Barlow, Jennette Lovetri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives. While quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people’s voices on which to model ‘norms’ in behaviour, particularly for Contemporary Commercial Music (CCM) such as Musical Theatre (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between ‘classical’ and ‘musical theatre’ styles.
Study Design. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 training their voices using a system which includes both 'classical' and ‘musical theatre’ styles.
Methods, The study examined Laryngographically derived Closed Quotient (CQ), Average Vowel Spectra (AVS) and Long Term Average Spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of voices of singers in ‘classical’ and ‘musical theatre’ styles.
Results The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice and Mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in a MT style than in a 'classical'. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles.
Conclusion. The increase in intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results therefore suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)314-318
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Voice
Volume24
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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Voice Training
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Acoustics
Cohort Studies
Prospective Studies
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title = "Closed Quotient and Spectral Measures of Female Adolescent Singers in Different Singing Styles",
abstract = "Objectives. While quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people’s voices on which to model ‘norms’ in behaviour, particularly for Contemporary Commercial Music (CCM) such as Musical Theatre (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between ‘classical’ and ‘musical theatre’ styles. Study Design. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 training their voices using a system which includes both 'classical' and ‘musical theatre’ styles. Methods, The study examined Laryngographically derived Closed Quotient (CQ), Average Vowel Spectra (AVS) and Long Term Average Spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of voices of singers in ‘classical’ and ‘musical theatre’ styles. Results The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice and Mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in a MT style than in a 'classical'. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. Conclusion. The increase in intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results therefore suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre.",
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Closed Quotient and Spectral Measures of Female Adolescent Singers in Different Singing Styles. / Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jennette.

In: Journal of Voice, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2010, p. 314-318.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - Objectives. While quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people’s voices on which to model ‘norms’ in behaviour, particularly for Contemporary Commercial Music (CCM) such as Musical Theatre (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between ‘classical’ and ‘musical theatre’ styles. Study Design. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 training their voices using a system which includes both 'classical' and ‘musical theatre’ styles. Methods, The study examined Laryngographically derived Closed Quotient (CQ), Average Vowel Spectra (AVS) and Long Term Average Spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of voices of singers in ‘classical’ and ‘musical theatre’ styles. Results The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice and Mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in a MT style than in a 'classical'. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. Conclusion. The increase in intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results therefore suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre.

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