Characterization of the mean flow field in the far wake region behind ocean current turbines

Parakram Pyakurel, Wenlong Tian, James H. VanZwieten, Manhar Dhanak

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) covalently bound to the surface of human red blood cells (hRBCs) has been shown to decrease immunological recognition of hRBC surface antigens (Bradley et al., 2002). However, there is an increasing shortage of hRBC donations, thus making hRBCs scarce and expensive (Davey, 2004; Riess, 2001). The goal of this study is to similarly PEGylate the surface of bovine RBCs (bRBCs) with the aim of reducing the demand on human blood donations needed for blood transfusions. This study investigates the feasibility of modifying the surface of bRBCs with the succinimidyl ester of methoxypolyethylene glycol propionic acid (SPA-mPEG) for use as a potential blood substitute. The oxygen binding affinity of PEGylated bRBCs was moderately increased with increasing initial SPA-mPEG concentrations up to 4 mM when reacted with bRBCs at a hematocrit of 12%. Oxygen transport simulations verified that SPA-mPEG conjugated bRBCs could still transport oxygen to pancreatic islet tissues even under extreme conditions. PEGylated bRBCs reconstituted to a hematocrit of 40% exhibited viscosities on the order of 3 cp, similar to hRBCs at the same hematocrit. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate the success of PEGylating bRBCs to yield modified cells with oxygen binding, transport and flow properties similar to that of hRBCs
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)113-123
    Number of pages11
    JournalJournal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy
    Publication statusPublished - 3 Feb 2017


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