Auditory Hindsight Bias: Fluency Misattribution Versus Memory Reconstruction

P.A. Higham, G.J. Neil, D.M. Bernstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We report 4 experiments investigating auditory hindsight bias – the tendency to overestimate the intelligibility of distorted auditory stimuli after learning their identity. An associative priming manipulation was used to vary the amount of processing fluency independently of prior target knowledge. For hypothetical designs, in which hindsight judgments are made for peers in foresight, we predicted that judgments would be based on processing fluency and that hindsight bias would be greater in the unrelated- compared to related-prime context (differential-fluency hypothesis). Conversely, for memory designs, in which foresight judgments are remembered in hindsight, we predicted that judgments would be based on memory reconstruction and that there would be independent effects of prime relatedness and prior target knowledge (recollection hypothesis). These predictions were confirmed. Specifically, we found support for the differential-fluency hypothesis when a hypothetical design was used in Experiments 1 and 2 (hypothetical group). Conversely, when a memory design was used in Experiments 2 (memory group), 3A and 3B, we found support for the recollection hypothesis. Together, the results suggest that qualitatively different mechanisms create hindsight bias in the two designs. The results are discussed in terms of fluency misattributions, memory reconstruction, anchoring-and-adjustment, sense making, and a multi-component model of hindsight bias.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1144-1159
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance
Volume43
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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Social Adjustment
Learning
Hearing
Fluency
Hindsight Bias
Experiment
Recollection
Hindsight
Foresight
Prediction
Sensemaking
Auditory Stimuli
Anchoring
Peers
Manipulation
Intelligibility
Associative Priming

Cite this

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Auditory Hindsight Bias : Fluency Misattribution Versus Memory Reconstruction. / Higham, P.A.; Neil, G.J.; Bernstein, D.M.

In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Vol. 43, No. 6, 2017, p. 1144-1159.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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