A higher effort-based paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health: making the case for a greater emphasis on resistance training

James Steele, James Fisher, Martin Skivington, Chris Dunn, Josh Arnold, Garry Tew, Alan M. Batterham, David Nunan, Jamie M. O'Driscoll, Steven Mann, Chris Beedie, Simon Jobson, Dave Smith, Andrew Vigotsky, Stuart Phillips, Paul Estabrooks, Richard Winett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

It is well known that physical activity and exercise is associated with a lower risk of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. Further, it appears that risk reductions are greater when physical activity and/or exercise is performed at a higher intensity of effort. Why this may be the case is perhaps explained by the accumulating evidence linking physical fitness and performance outcomes (e.g. cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and muscle mass) also to morbidity and mortality risk. Current guidelines about the performance of moderate/vigorous physical activity using aerobic exercise modes focuses upon the accumulation of a minimum volume of physical activity and/or exercise, and have thus far produced disappointing outcomes. As such there has been increased interest in the use of higher effort physical activity and exercise as being potentially more efficacious. Though there is currently debate as to the effectiveness of public health prescription based around higher effort physical activity and exercise, most discussion around this has focused upon modes considered to be traditionally ‘aerobic’ (e.g. running, cycling, rowing, swimming etc.). A mode customarily performed to a relatively high intensity of effort that we believe has been overlooked is resistance training. Current guidelines do include recommendations to engage in ‘muscle strengthening activities’ though there has been very little emphasis upon these modes in either research or public health effort. As such the purpose of this debate article is to discuss the emerging higher effort paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health and to make a case for why there should be a greater emphasis placed upon resistance training as a mode in this paradigm shift.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)300
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume17
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2017

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Resistance Training
Public Health
Exercise
Guidelines
Morbidity
Physical Fitness
Mortality
Muscle Strength
Risk Reduction Behavior
Running
Prescriptions
Muscles
Research

Cite this

Steele, James ; Fisher, James ; Skivington, Martin ; Dunn, Chris ; Arnold, Josh ; Tew, Garry ; Batterham, Alan M. ; Nunan, David ; O'Driscoll, Jamie M. ; Mann, Steven ; Beedie, Chris ; Jobson, Simon ; Smith, Dave ; Vigotsky, Andrew ; Phillips, Stuart ; Estabrooks, Paul ; Winett, Richard. / A higher effort-based paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health: making the case for a greater emphasis on resistance training. In: BMC Public Health. 2017 ; Vol. 17. pp. 300.
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Steele, J, Fisher, J, Skivington, M, Dunn, C, Arnold, J, Tew, G, Batterham, AM, Nunan, D, O'Driscoll, JM, Mann, S, Beedie, C, Jobson, S, Smith, D, Vigotsky, A, Phillips, S, Estabrooks, P & Winett, R 2017, 'A higher effort-based paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health: making the case for a greater emphasis on resistance training' BMC Public Health, vol. 17, pp. 300.

A higher effort-based paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health: making the case for a greater emphasis on resistance training. / Steele, James; Fisher, James; Skivington, Martin; Dunn, Chris; Arnold, Josh; Tew, Garry ; Batterham, Alan M.; Nunan, David; O'Driscoll, Jamie M. ; Mann, Steven; Beedie, Chris; Jobson, Simon; Smith, Dave; Vigotsky, Andrew; Phillips, Stuart; Estabrooks, Paul; Winett, Richard.

In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 17, 05.04.2017, p. 300.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Steele, James

AU - Fisher, James

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AU - Dunn, Chris

AU - Arnold, Josh

AU - Tew, Garry

AU - Batterham, Alan M.

AU - Nunan, David

AU - O'Driscoll, Jamie M.

AU - Mann, Steven

AU - Beedie, Chris

AU - Jobson, Simon

AU - Smith, Dave

AU - Vigotsky, Andrew

AU - Phillips, Stuart

AU - Estabrooks, Paul

AU - Winett, Richard

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AB - It is well known that physical activity and exercise is associated with a lower risk of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. Further, it appears that risk reductions are greater when physical activity and/or exercise is performed at a higher intensity of effort. Why this may be the case is perhaps explained by the accumulating evidence linking physical fitness and performance outcomes (e.g. cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and muscle mass) also to morbidity and mortality risk. Current guidelines about the performance of moderate/vigorous physical activity using aerobic exercise modes focuses upon the accumulation of a minimum volume of physical activity and/or exercise, and have thus far produced disappointing outcomes. As such there has been increased interest in the use of higher effort physical activity and exercise as being potentially more efficacious. Though there is currently debate as to the effectiveness of public health prescription based around higher effort physical activity and exercise, most discussion around this has focused upon modes considered to be traditionally ‘aerobic’ (e.g. running, cycling, rowing, swimming etc.). A mode customarily performed to a relatively high intensity of effort that we believe has been overlooked is resistance training. Current guidelines do include recommendations to engage in ‘muscle strengthening activities’ though there has been very little emphasis upon these modes in either research or public health effort. As such the purpose of this debate article is to discuss the emerging higher effort paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health and to make a case for why there should be a greater emphasis placed upon resistance training as a mode in this paradigm shift.

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